DOWNLOAD THE REPORT The Nuclear Scholars Initiative is a signature program run by the Project on Nuclear Issues (PONI) to engage emerging nuclear experts in thoughtful and informed debate over how to best address the nuclear community’s most pressing problems. The papers included in this volume comprise research from participants in the 2021 Nuclear Scholars Initiative. These papers explore a range of crucial debates such as the future of arms control and deterrence, emerging technologies, SSBN vulnerability, public opinion, cyber norms, and the role of regional dynamics including China and India in nuclear security. Table of Contents: Introduction | Reja YounisLessons Learned from Arms Control with Russia | April Arnold Gamma Spectroscopy Detector Candidates and Radioisotope Identification Algorithms for Use in National Security Applications | Marlene BencomoA Quiet Place: Assessing SSBN Vulnerability in the Artic Ocean | Nicholas BlanchetteBlurring the Line: Conventional Systems and Nuclear Risks in the U.S.-China Relationship | Gerald BrownThe Nuclear Sea-Launched Cruise Missile: Worth the Investment for Deterrence | Patty-Jane GellerWhen Should We Care About New Technology in the Nuclear Domain?: Assessing Emerging Technologies Impacts on Stability | Matt GilbertKasa-obake: A Spirited Case against Abandoning the U.S.-Japan Nuclear Umbrella | Julian GluckThe Optics of Deterrence: How Science Assures the Nuclear Stockpile’s Reliability in Lieu of Testing | Chris JohnsonPliable Preferences? The U.S. Public and Missile Defense | Jamie KwongU.S. Policy Considerations around the Treaty of Tlatelolco and Implications for Other Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone Treaties | Benjamin LindenThe Risks of Nuclear Proliferation in the Gulf: Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates | Jesse LuboveToward a Low-Yield Warhead Limiting Agreement | Julia MastersonPoltergeist of the Power Plant: How Antineutrinos Can Support the IAEA Safeguards Mission | Austin MullenOld Wars, New Tools? Emerging Technologies and Nuclear Risk in South Asia | Beenish PervaizThe TPNW and the U.S. Arms Control Community: Forever Foes or Potential Partners? | Halley PosnerNuclear Confidence Building through Cyber Norms: A Backdoor to Cooperation | Christian RuhlFuture Tritium Production: Does the United States Need to Reestablish Domestic Uranium Enrichment? | Courtney RyanIndia’s Nonproliferation History and Trajectory: Posturing at Home and Abroad | Benjamin SilversteinThe Nonproliferation Policy SPIN Cycle: How Not to Leave Data Out to Dry | Jamie WithorneCapacity Building through Participation: Regional Biases in the Multilateral Export Control Regimes and the Implications for U.S. Strategy Trade Policy | Austin Wright This publication was made possible with support by the National Nuclear Security Administration. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0003970.